Effects of Green Revolution in India
With the ever rising human population, several revolutions have occurred from time to time to cater to the needs of the human population. One such revolution occurred in the later half of the 20th century to supply enough food for the growing population. This revolution, known as the ‘green revolution’, changed the field of agriculture to a great extent. It was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new technological advancements including the formation of chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides, and the introduction of high-yield crops specifically designed to produce more overall yield.
Dr. Norman Ernest Borlaug, an American agronomist, humanitarian and Nobel laureate has been called “the father of the Green Revolution.” By the mid-1960’s while taking the technical components of the Merican wheat technology of high-yielding and disease-resistant wheat varieties, to Asia, Dr. Borlaug sparked the green Revolution in wheat production in India and Pakistan.
GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA:- The Green Revolution in India is marked by introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after 1965 and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigations. This, eventually made India self-sufficient in terms of food grains. It is after said that the Green Revolution was most successful in India.
There were three basic elements in the method of the Green Revolution:-
- Continued expansion of farming areas.
- Double-cropping existing farmland.
- Using seeds with improved genetics.
EFFECTS OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA:- The effects that Green Revolution had on India can be broadly classified into four categories:-
(a) Statistical effect
(b) Economic effect
(c) Sociological effect
(d) Political effect
1). Statistical effect:-
- Increase in Agricultural Production:- With the Green Revolution, India emerged as one of the biggest agricultural producers of the world with a record level of success. From 1967 onwards, the Green Revolution aimed at bringing about a Grain Revolution. As a result of this revolution, India made a record grain output of 131 million tons in 1978-79. The crop that gained the most benefit from the Green Revolution in India was wheat. The production of wheat increased by more than three times between 1967-68 and 2003-04. Because of this reason, the Green Revolution in India is after termed as the wheat Revolution.
- Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30 percent between 1947 and 1979.
- During the ten years of Green Revolution, use of HYV seeds increased to a great extent. The crop area under HYV seeds increased from 7% to 22% of the total cultivated area. Due to the Green Revolution, traditional agricultural inputs and practices paved a path for new and scientific practices, Event eh traditional fertilizers have been replaced largely by the chemical fertilizers.
2). Economic Effect:-
- The increasing demand of water, fertilizers, pesticides and certain other chemicals for the crop areas under high-yields varieties led way towards the growth of local manufacturing sector. As a result of this industrial growth, new job opportunities were created which eventually played an important role in raising country’s GDP.
- Several new dams were made to cater to the increasing need of irrigation. These dams harnessed the monsoon water and this stored water was used for the hydro-electric power generation. This resulted in huge industrial growth that eventually created jobs for the people living in rural areas and improved the quality of their lives.
- India was finally able to pay back all the loans it had taken from the World Bank and becoming self-sufficient in food-grains, India become one of the leading exporters of food gain.
3). Sociological Effect:-
- As a result of the Green Revolution, several job opportunities were created not only for the agricultural workers but also for the industrial workers. Several industries engage in production of agricultural products such as agricultural machinery, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides etc. have emerged to cater to their increasing demand.
- With the green revolution, the Indian farmers have changed their attitude towards the agricultural practices. They have slowly started adopting scientific practices by giving up the traditional agricultural practices.
4). Political Effect:
- With the green revolution, India not only became self-sufficient in terms of food grains but it also became one of the leading exporters of food grains all around the world. This earned India an admiration in the cavity of nations, especially in the Third World.
LIMITATION OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION:- With the several positive impacts, Green Revolution has several limitations as well. Some of the limitations are as below:-
1.Rising inter-personal inequalities among farmers:- The new technology introduced as a result of the Green Revolution isn’t very economical and requires a huge amount of investment, and hence, it’s affordable only by the big farmers making then even richer in comparison to other farmers. This increases inequality in rural areas.
- Regional inequality:- Since the Green Revolution remained very much limited to wheat only, thus, the regions that were benefitted the most by this revolution were Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. This new agricultural strategy led to an increase in regional inequalities.
- Low labour absorption:- Due to the rising demand of labour, mechanization of agriculture was done and this led to reduction in the labour absorption in agriculture. The uneven regional growth was also one of the major causes of the low absorption of labour within agriculture. The growth of output was also slow to generate adequate employment opportunities.
- Undesirable social consequences:- A large number of tenants and share-croppers have lost their lands as a result of the Green Revolution and have been forced to join the ranks of agricultural labours as many large farmers realized that its more profitable to cultivate land themselves.
- Health Hazards:- With the advent of increased mechanization along with modernization of farm technology, came several life threatening risks for the farmers due to accidents. Even the government hasn’t shown too much care towards the victims of accidents on farm machines. Only a meager compensation is provided to the victims.
NEED OF SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION:- with the Green Revolution, more and more area kept coming under irrigation, high yield varieties and fertilizers. But in recent past, it ahs been seen that the increasing cost of fertilizers are pushing agro cost upwards and turning food unaffordable for masses. Moreover, the increasing use of fertilizers, nutrients in soil are depleting and the soil is degrading rapidly.
The problems of hunger and starvation are still very much hindering the growth of the country. As the production by our lands is still very much below the world average, current state of agriculture is not very suitable. Therefore, the new agricultural policy of India aims at sustainable agriculture, Which is popularly called ‘second green revolution’ or ‘evergreen revolution’.
SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION:- The following policies are covered under the second Green Revolution.
- Information Technology Revolution:- This will create awareness in farmers, introduce them with more cost efficient technologies and enable them to choose among different alternatives.
- Biotechnology Revolution:-
It aims at improving the genetic traits of crops by making them draught, pest, weed, climate, resistant. The aim is achieved by the genetically engineered crops.
This also includes use of two pesticides and two fertilizers. This strategy targets towards the sustainable organic farming.
Research & development and targeting of specific crops.
CONCLUSION:- In a nutshell, it can be said that the green revolution gave India food security and sufficiency at the most critical time. However, the unjustified use of fertilizers and other chemicals has started making food and water toxic and dangerous for us, humans. Thus, India has started looking out for a sustainable form of agriculture to conserve food and water along with the quality of soil. For achieving this purpose India has started several mission s like Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture, which further includes National Horticulture Mission and National Bamboo Mission, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna, National Mission for sustainable agriculture, National Food Security Mission, Integrated Pest Management, etc.
Leaders of our nation hope that with ‘second green revolution’ farm productivity will increase to help the country meet its economic and development goals.